2020 Season – Infinite Recharge 2020 Season
Infinite Recharge

For our 6th season, Team 5406 was set to compete at the Ryerson University event and the McMaster University event with our robot, Mo. This was our most ambitious robot to date. With more attention to quality control and precision than any of our previous robots, it was reliable and consistent throughout testing. Mo featured a significant number of laser cut, CNC routered, and 3D printed parts - all made in house. It used computer vision tracking and could efficiently complete autonomous tasks. Unfortunately, due to COVID-19, the 2020 competitive season was cut short, and Mo never had a chance to compete.

Infinite Recharge is the name of the 2020 FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC) challenge. The game involves two alliances of three teams each competing to perform various tasks. The main goal is to shoot foam balls ("Power Cells") into inner and outer goals. Score enough Power Cells, and the "Shield Generator" in the middle of the field activates. Other tasks include manipulating a spinning disc known as the "Control Panel", and returning to the Shield Generator to park or climb at the end of the match. More information can be found on Wikipedia.

Mo – The Robot

Quick Facts
  • Name Mo
  • Status In service
  • Size 26.75" W x 32" L x 26.9" H (collapsed)
  • Weight 125 lbs

Events and Outreach
FIRST Aid Day:
Helped multiple teams to either get their robots driving or to implement additional functionality
HWCDSB System Science Fair:
Talked to students about FIRST robotics with 4039 MakeShift and demoed Pat (2020 practice bot)
Robot Abilities

More information on each of Mo's subsystems can be found in Meet the Robot.

6 wheel, single-speed West Coast drive
3-ball wide deployable intake
Velocity-controlled Power Cell feeder
Turreted shooter with adjustable ~300 degrees of rotation and ~60 degrees of hood motion
Climbing mechanism with ~7ft+ reach
Ramsete controller path following with waypoints, computer vision based targeting
  • 3 ball centre
  • 5 and 7 ball left
  • 6 and 8 ball right
  • Meet the Robot

    To learn more about Mo's subsystems, click on the green pins.

    A CAD model of Mo
    Worth a Mention
    Machined (in-house):
    • Drive chassis — routered from box tubing
    • Axle for the shooter wheels — custom lathe work
    • Intake rails, brackets, shooter base plate, and other structural elements — routered in-house
    Laser-Cut (in-house):
    Custom Delrin turret, intake HDPE plates
    3D-Printed (in-house):
    DIN rail mounts, pulleys, and all sorts of other things!
    Heat Transferred (in-house):
    Bumper numbers (also cut in-house on a mentor's Cricut)

    The only parts of the robot that was not made in-house were the bumper frames, which were waterjetted and bent on a CNC brake at one of our sponsors. Without a CNC brake, it would have been extremely difficult to achieve the precise bends we wanted for our bumper frames.

    This season, we faced an interesting problem — how to machine box tubing. This was a significant challenge for us on the router, but we developed a procedure where we could align, probe, and flip the tubing to get matching holes (e.g. for bearings) on both sides.

    Learned From Past Years

    This year, we set a goal to have zero on-field breakdowns. Here's what we learned from past years in order to try to reach our goal:

    No POE on Limelight:
    Having POE on the Limelight introduces more points of failure and increases the likelihood of losing the Limelight if the connection is just a little bit off. Instead, the Limelight is wired straight into the PDP.
    IDC Connectors:
    We use IDC connectors on our CAN bus to connect each node to the main bus. This provides a secure connection and ensures that a failure of any wires going to a node does not result in the failure of the main bus, which keeps the system operating more reliably.
    Ethernet Switch for Tethering:
    Utilized so nothing has to be unplugged when we tether on the practice field. This increases reliability because we don't need to check if forgot to plug something back in.
    DIN Rail Mounts:
    Our mounts are custom 3D-printed in-house and simply clip onto the DIN rail — this makes it easy to remove and fix any motor controller issues. Being able to securely mount electronics in an industry standard way and then remove and reposition them as needed makes replacement and maintenance easy. Because the DIN rail was so successful in 2019, we continued using it for 2020.
    Software and Controls
    NavX (gyro and accelerometer), NEO encoders, SRX MAG encoders, Limelight for vision tracking
    Motor Controllers:
    SPARK MAXs controlling the NEOs and NEO 550s, via CAN
    Ramsete Controller for path following, utilizing parallel and sequential commands
    To combat defense while stationary, the drive motor controllers are instructed to actively hold the last position they were in. This makes the robot harder to knock around while shooting.
    Pulsed Rollers:
    Since Mo's hopper is just controlled by gravity, the intake rollers need to be pulsed to "push" the Power Cells into the feeder. They also help to jostle the Power Cells around a bit to promote natural reordering and some amount of anti-jamming.
    Velocity-Controlled Feeder:
    In order to maintain shooting accuracy, it is important to give the shooter wheel some minimum time to recover. By controlling the speed of the mechanism that is feeding Power Cells into the shooter flywheel, we can ensure a minimum time between Power Cells, which is timed to ensure that the flywheel velocity will be sufficient for the next shot by the time the ball enters the shooter.
    Absolute Encoders, Auto-Targeting, Soft Limits:
    • There are two absolute encoders — one on the turret itself and one on the hood. That way, if we lose communication to the robot, we can always know the position of our mechanism from any arbitrary location. Having absolute encoders also means that we don't have to zero out our mechanisms when turning on the robot. This eliminates a step in our match preparation, which increases reliability.
    • We use the retro-reflective markers with the Limelight's built in machine vision to locate targets. We use the horizontal offset to position the turret, and use a quadratic regression on the target's vertical offset to calculate the hood angle and flywheel RPM from any location on the field.
    • The ~300 degrees of turret rotation is a conservative estimate — soft limits have been implemented to ensure we don't break our umbilical while turning the turret. (It is worth noting that while Mo's turret could rotate 360 degrees, we would damage the umbilical.)
    Automated Climb:
    To activate the automated climb, first the driver lines up with the Shield Generator switch and presses a one-button combo. The arms then go to a fixed height and the operator can adjust from there. To make the climb, it is one more one-button combo. We use button combos to trigger actions that we don't want to happen by accident.
    • Can shoot Power Cells into the Inner and Outer Port at a speed of two balls per second
    • Can climb on the Shield Generator switch in 3 seconds
    • Can go through the trench run
    • Can shoot from as far as 30ft away from the driver wall